Nephrotic Syndrome is caused by glomerular dysfunction with characterised signs of: proteinuria,hypoalbuminemia and edema. Only these symptoms can’t make a definite diagnosis. In order to arrive at an accurate diagnosis, a series of biochemical tests need to be done to confirm the diagnosis.
The first test is urinalysis to check out whether there is protein in the urine and how much of it. The test will involve 24-hour bedside urinary total protein estimation. Healthy people can discharge some protein in the urine. If there is an insignificant amount of protein, you don’t need to worry about it.
Otherwise, you have to be examined for urinary casts, which are more a feature of active nephritis.
And blood test is to test protein in blood. If albumin level is under 2.5 g/dL, it indicates hypoalbuminemia.
Creatinine clearance test can evaluate renal function, particularly the glomerular filtration capacity. Creatinine is a kind of metabolic waste, and it is transported in the blood and eliminated in urine. When glomeruli are with a low GFR, the creatinine will reach a high level.
Other concentration of organic compounds also can reflect the capacity of the glomeruli to filter blood. Electrolytes and urea levels may also be analysed at the same time as creatinine (EUC test) in order to evaluate renal function. A test of lipid will also be carried out as high levels of cholesterol (hypercholesterolemia), specifically elevated VLDL is indicative of nephrotic syndrome.
A kidney biopsy can give a more specific result. However, this procedure is usually reserved for adults as the majority of children suffer from minimum change disease that has a remission rate of 95% with corticosteroids.
Doctor will instruct you to take these tests, and the result will assist doctor make an accurate diagnosis of your condition.